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Symbols are important to cultures in all periods of history.  A study of the symbols an era relates to, helps us understand their beliefs and what was important to them.  Below are some symbols prevalent in medieval Europe and the Middle East and their associated meanings.

latin cross
This cross in early historical periods was often referred to as "God's March."  It is the most recognized emblem of the Christian faith.   Evolving from this cross (and the Greek equal-armed cross), many other versions of the cross were designed during the Middle Ages.  Often these images were used on clothing, art, buildings, and in heraldic images.
Cleves cross
Cross of Cleves (synonymous with "Latin cross flory")
Maltese cross
Maltese Cross.   I'd be hard pressed to offer more information than History of the Maltese Cross, a fabulous site on the evolution of the Maltese Cross, also known as the symbol for the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem. 
Jerusalem Cross
The Crusaders' or Jerusalem Cross was first used as a coat of arms for the Latin Kingdom in Jerusalem.  The four small crosses represent the four Gospels proclaimed to the four corners of the earth, moving outward from Jerusalem.  Also, all five crosses can symbolize the five wounds of Christ during the Passion.  It was used as the emblem of the Templar Crusaders, and may have been the personal arms of Templar Godfrey de Bouillon.  See Kingdom of Jerusalem 1099-1291 for further discussion of the possible usage of this emblem in the personal heraldry of Templar Godfrey de Bouillon.
Exorcism symbol
This symbol, a triskelion within a circle, was believed to exorcise evil spirits.
Saracen talisman
This symbol was a Saracen talisman.

Symbols were rendered with XARA using P22's font "Koch Signs."
Reference:  Koch, Rudolf (1955),  The Book of Signs, Dover, NY. ISBN 0486201627.




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